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In Mozambique, cassava and maize are the main staple crops. Sorghum, millet, rice and beans are also grown to provide food security. Unfortunately, farmers are still growing traditional (local) varieties that are low yielding and susceptible to adverse effects of climate changes.

Maize productivity in Mozambique is around 800 kg per hectare, less than half the average for the Southern Africa region. The value adding chains for agricultural products are still in the early stages of development due to problems relating to production, quality of the products, lack of functional markets and access to financial services and to credit (FAO, 2012). Additional problems involve low investment in the sector and competition with imported goods. Producers face many problems to place their products, with the most frequent being the lack of traders, long distances to markets, lack of transport and low prices, among others (SETSAN, 2014).

Mozambican agriculture is generally characterized by lower yields and lower input use than other countries in the region as well as greater probability of climatic extremes such as droughts, floods and cyclones. Because of this, local policy makers and agricultural specialists have expressed interest in exploring the potential for conservation agriculture (CA) to improve smallholder productivity and decrease vulnerability to climatic events and overall climate change in Mozambique. Though CA has been promoted in Mozambique since 1996, data supporting CA yield increases in Mozambique remain limited.

Project Sites

SIMLESA was implemented in two distinct agro-ecological areas of central Mozambique (Figure 3) in six communities. Low potential (R4) agro-ecological areas include Sussundenga and Gorongosa. High potential (R10) agro –ecological areas are Manica, Rotanda, Ciphole and Cabango in Angónia.

The low potential areas are characterized by medium textured generally well drained and red coloured soils. The cropping system is dominated by cereal/legume crops. Maize (Zea mays) and sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] are dominant crops. Legume crops include cowpea (Vignaunguiculata, L), groundnut (Arachishypogaea, L.), pigeonpea (Cajanuscajan, L.) and more recently soybean [Glycine max, (L.)Merryl]. Annual precipitation varies from 1000 to 1200 mm falling mainly from November to March. Average temperature is 26.5 oC.

The high potential areas are characterized by occurrence of red clay soils (RhodicFerralsols) and Ferralitic soils from plateaus. The cropping system of R10 is dominated by maize associated with legume (common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris,L), soybean and potatoes (SolanumtuberosumL.). Total rainfall is 1400-1800mm per annum and average temperatures vary from 15 to 22 degrees Celsius. In general soils are productive but the amount of Nitrogen in arable soils is very low (INIA, 1993)

Resilience, Risk Mitigation and Protecting Natural Resources.

In low potential agro-ecological regions creating one or two holes with a pointed dibble stick where seed and fertilizer are manually placed or direct seeded, with a maize and cowpea intercrop led to higher and more stable yields, and less risk compared to both basins and conventional practice (planting on the flat using a ridge and furrow system constructed with hand hoes. The net benefits were due both to greater yield and profitability and reduced labor costs.

SIMLESA Impacts in Mozambique

Sample publications from Mozambique

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      Monitoring, Evaluation and Learning

      Direct beneficiaries reached through SIMLESA support : 102,856

      Innovation Platforms: 10

      Farmers reached: 24000

      Researchers trained  651

      Adoption target: 117,641

      Thematic Area Mozambique
      Area under dedicated for maize (millions) 1.4
      Production per ha (tonnes) 0.85
      Baseline reports 1

      Trial Demonstration Plots

      Production of maize, soy bean, groundnuts, and beans are projected to decrease by 17- 25% due to increased temperature, rainfall variability and delayed onset of the season in this region. More than 75% of the smallholder farmers cannot afford to invest in advanced agricultural technologies – and those who do, often for high value crops such as such as tobacco, potato, coconut, groundnut and cotton. The pervasive high level of poverty and low literacy limit people’s options for making agricultural activities more climate-resilient and for finding alternative livelihoods.

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