On each farm, one replication of the trial was installed with plots large enough for effective farmer evaluation. These trials were combined, as needed, with other outreach and experimental methods (such as mother-baby trials) to gain the fullest participation of target groups, especially women. Adjustments to the smallholder maize-legume systems tested in the exploratory trials and farmer experiments developed with farm communities in the target research sites and soil quality, system productivity, and disease, pest and weed dynamics quantified (integrated with the previous output)
Appropriate interventions for improving seed and fertilizer delivery, and farmer access to technologies and markets field tested in target research sites (moved to objective 4:identifying Effective Scaling Modalities).
Lessons from CA-based intensification experiments shared and linked to targeting strategies.
Thus, in each community there was one trial with 5-6 replications on different fields to sample the variability in biophysical conditions. Basic soil, topography and cropping history data were obtained for each of the demonstration/validation plots were established by farmers with program orientation and support. Trials and treatments were established on the same site for the duration of the program, allowing for the short-term cumulative benefits of the treatments to be evaluated. Observations of problems on these trials provided inputs into the on-farm research program and into the management of the same trials in succeeding years. Data was made available on qualitative and quantitative evaluations of demonstration plots by farmers and other members of the innovation platforms.