On each farm, one replication of the trial will be installed with plots large enough for effective farmer evaluation. These trials will be combined, as needed, with other outreach and experimental methods (such as mother-baby trials) to gain the fullest participation of target groups, especially women
Thus, in each community there will be one trial with 5-6 replications on different fields to sample the variability in biophysical conditions. Basic soil, topography and cropping history data will be obtained for each of the demonstration/validation plots which will be established by farmers with program orientation and support. Trials and treatments will be established on the same site for the duration of the program, allowing for the short-term cumulative benefits of the treatments to be evaluated.
Observations of problems on these trials will provide inputs into the on-farm research program and into the management of the same trials in succeeding years. Data will be made available on qualitative and quantitative evaluations of demonstration plots by farmers and other members of the innovation platforms.
Adjustments to the smallholder maize-legume systems tested in the exploratory trials and farmer experiments developed with farm communities in the target research sites and soil quality, system productivity, and disease, pest and weed dynamics quantified (integrated with the previous output).
Appropriate interventions for improving seed and fertilizer delivery, and farmer access to technologies and markets field tested in target research sites (moved to objective 4).
Lessons from CA-based intensification experiments shared and linked to targeting strategies.